페이지 정보작성자 박성일 작성일12-03-09 07:17 조회3,577회 댓글0건
Missionaries to <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" />Korea <?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />
The Korean Church was seeded by missionaries usually came from North America. Even now sincere Korean Christians respect and memorize missionaries who sacrificed their life to evangelize Korea. Among them the most important are Appenzeller and Underwood. By studying their activities, the situation of that time also can be found and known.
Appenzeller is the first Methodist missionary to Korea. Apezeller was born in Pennsylvania in 1858. His parents were Lutherans, and in 1882 he entered Drew Theological Seminary and graduated from seminary in 3 years. He married Ella J. Dodge in December 1884, and he was ordained by Bishop Fowler on February 2, 1885. Via Japan, he arrived at Korea on April 5, 1885 with Horace G. Underwood, Presbyterian Missionary.
As a matter of fact, the mission to Korea by Methodists was begun unexpectedly. Min Young-Ik, who was a member of the king’s wife’s family, went to the U.S.A as a messenger. He was on a train trip and met Rev. John F. Goucher, who belonged to the Methodist Church. After having conversations, Goucher asked bishop Wiley to send missionaries to Korea in 1883. And then he sent letters to missionary Robert S. Maclay who was in Japan. So Maclay visited the King of Korea and received permission for missionaries to come and provide Education and Medical treatment (The Institute of Korean Church History Studies 173-179). Therefore, when Apenzeller came to Korea, only education and medical treatment were legal and mission was against the law.
At that time, Appenzeller’s work seemed to concentrate on modern education. Mission was not allowed. But he used education as the device of mission. Though it was dangerous, he tried to do mission work secretly. And after some years, missionaries could do missional work under the silent cover of the King. Even the name of the school established by Appenzeller was given by the Korean King. Appenzeller established Pae-Jae school and established “Chung-Tong the first Methodist church.” At that time, King’s palace was very near to “Chung-Tong the first Methodist church.” Appenzeller established Methodist organization in Korea, and published many documents to expose Korea to the world. He traveled all around Korea in order to know Korea better. But the most important of Appenzeller’s achievements was the translation of the Bible into Korean. At last, in 1900, the Korean New Testament was published. And then he translated Old Testament. But in on June 11, 1902, on trip to meet the Bible translation committee, he died in a ship wreck. He might survive, but, he swam back to the ship in order to rescue his followers, and never came back. Though he was dead, his son and daughters succeeded in his works, and they also worked for the mission and education to Korea like their father did.
When I see his theological bases, as a Methodist missionary, Appenzeller was much related to Wesleyan tradition. Appenzeller was educated about the Bible rigorously by his mother just like Wesley was well trained by his mother Susanna Wesley. And Appenzeller began writing his diary when he was only twelve, so he could have organized his thoughts during all of his life. When he was 18 years old, on October 1, 1876, he felt that his sin was washed away and he experienced God’s grace for him in a Christian spiritual gathering. In a big impression, he experienced conversion through. And this experience of conversion made him sacrifice all his life for mission. He made this day his spiritual birthday and remembered this day every year. In the case of Wesley, his journal tells us that he felt his heart became strangely warm and he came to believe in Jesus only to be saved. Moreover, he felt the Lord has set him free from sin and saved him from the law of death (Wesley 70). Like Wesley, the great assurance of salvation made Appenzeller devote his life and made him stronger in unshakably to mission.
As Wesley’s conversion made it possible for him to be successful and powerful in mission, Appenzeller could strengthen power for mission, also. As Wesley did, Appenzeller also experienced “New Birth.” So, in the case of Appenzeller, realizing one’s sin and salvation by Christ became his center of thought. All through his life, Christ’s atonement for sin became the main theme of the preaching. In the case of Wesley, he received a rigorous education in his home, and through college life, he became well trained about religious life. He was well prepared but there was no fire seed to burn his soul and body. He became a missionary to America. It means, in Wesley’s bosom, there was always strong passion for mission. But only one thing was in short supply and that was conviction. Thus when Wesley received strong conviction, it became the fire seed, and his soul and body were burning through all his life. Similarly, Appenzeller had also strong passion for the mission.
On February 19, 1881 Appenzeller attended a gathering for mission, and there, he was moved by a sermon for mission, and on that night he wrote on his diary: “If I have an ambition, it is to sacrifice all my life for my Lord.” Missionaries needed preparation, so he cultivated his ability to be a missionary in the mission club at Drew Theological Seminary.
On the other hand, Appenzeller attended “The American Inter-Seminary Alliance” in October 1883 and there, he would strengthen his will to be a missionary. In Seminary and by his own ministry, he trained himself to be a capable missionary. And, as Wesley had taught and lived, Appenzeller tried to follow his teaching and life. In addition, Appenzeller followed Wesley’s saying, “Sanctification, justification, and one penny in a week.” Appenzeller enjoyed preaching, and the main theme of his sermons was belief in Jesus who paid himself for our sins, and holy life after conversion. He also stressed living a holy life even in our secular lives (Griffis 73). Wesley traveled all around England, and the sizes of England and Korea are similar. Appenzeller also traveled all around Korea. Wesley was a great scholar and theologian. But he did not stay only at his desk. He was preacher in the field. Similarly, Appenzeller traveled Korea in order to know more about his mission place. The reason why Wesley is still respected is that he balanced actual ministry field and theology and inner faith. Thus Appenzeller followed the example what Wesley had shown before. As Korea had its specific understanding and tradition, Appenzeller had to plant Christianity under that situation. Therefore, he had to learn about “Applying Christianity to Korea.” Without understanding the Korean situation, it would be hard to make a good translation of the Korean Bible. Moreover, because he was connected with educational works among Koreans, he could enlarge and deepen his understanding of his mission place. Nevertheless, the main purpose of mission can be well expressed in his report to the Methodist Episcopal Church. On April 5, 1885, it was Easter Sunday. Apenzeller arrived at Korea and prayed like this and reported it to Methodist Episcopal Church.
“We reached here on Easter. Today let our lord break chains pressing these people and let them feel the light which God’s children can enjoy” (Griffis 72).
In Wesley’s era, many people lived lives of very low quality. There was great exploitation and many people were corrupted and uneducated. Therefore, to raise people’s standard of life was a very important issue to Wesley. Wesley objected to the slavery system, he created charitable works. He also established King’s Wood school under the principles of Christianity. He developed people’s spirituality and standard of lives, too. Likewise, Appenzeller felt a great deep of pity about the low quality of people in Korea. So he established Pae-Jae school and helped other schools and tried to develop Korean people’s life quality and solve social problems. He lived his life very methodically and tried to follow the good examples that John Wesley had taught and showed. After conversion, Wesley no longer wandered and had fewer struggles in ministry. Wesley was a man of conviction. Like Wesley, Appenzeller also had firm conviction, he was spiritually strong man. Even under many dangers, he was bold and unchanged.
In fact, Appenzeller’s energetic activity was not only because of his physical health. According to his first daughter Alice Rebecca Appenzeller’s saying, we can perceive his inner mind.
“He came to Korea when he was only 27 years old, he was such a big man and energetic also. But during mission he lost his health. So he was often sick and lost his weight about 40 pounds but he never denied his heavy work for his own health” (Yun 29).
In the midst of his passion for the ministry of Korea, his soul overwhelmed his body. This status is the very aspect of a man who was inspired by Holy Spirit.
Furthermore, Appenzller was much related to national process of Korea. When Appenzeller reached Korea, it was time of change in Korea, from an old to a modern society. Appenzeller established a school and educated many students about the modern world, and this education was in the spirit of Christianity. Therefore, most students from Appenzeller’s school became political and religious leaders of Korea. Eventually, Appenzeller contributed to the Modernization of Korea.
On the other hand, when Appenzeller came to Korea, many women were oppressed by men, but he tried to change this wrong social tradition. As he thought much of women’s role in church, many women rushed into the churches. And by their and their children’s efforts, the Korean churches grew so rapidly. As he was the superintendent, he took care of all Methodist missionaries in Korea and when he came back to the U.S.A. in his sabbatical, he urged the Methodist Church in the U.S.A. to send more materials for the mission of Korea and send more missionaries (Appenzeller 257).
He tried to establish as many churches and schools as possible. And through his efforts, even through the dark era of Korea, there still could be awakened people who received Christian modern education. Japan deprived Korea of the rights for diplomacy in 1905, and conquered Korea in 1910. Appenzeller died in 1902, so it is hard to know how he thought about the independence of Korea from Japan. Actually the missionaries had more concern about church growth, education, and medical care than actual world politics. Meanwhile, in the case of Japan, they tried to make Koreans ignorant. It was easy to control their victims by making sure they were uneducated. But education by Christian missionaries and teachers made people still live and awakened. So when the great non-violent strike against Japan took place in 1919, most of the leaders were Christians, and Methodists were majority of these leaders.
Back to Appenzeller, he was upset about poor people’s miserable life conditions, so he tried to help them and change them by education and mission. This tradition still flowed even in 1960-1980 in the Methodist Church in Korea. After the war, people were hungry and exploited. Conservative churches stressed secular blessings. When nobody else was concerned about the weak and the poor and the oppressed, Methodist still worked for them, and fought for them crying tears. And this tradition came from Wesley and the first Methodist missionary of Korea, Appenzeller.
In 1899 Appenzeller got a letter from a student. He was in a jail. As he was so grateful to Appenzeller, he sent a letter to express his gratitude. Appenzeller helped men in jail as Wesley did. He even helped the prisoner’s family (Appenzeller 143). Surprisingly, this young prisoner became the elder of “Chung-Tong the first Methodist Church” which Appenzeller had established, and eventually he became the first president of the Republic of Korea “Lee,Sung-Man.” As Appenzeller helped this young prisoner, he could be a great man and could contribute to the development of Methodist Church in Korea. Appenzeller and his fellows raised new Korean leaders and these leaders also raised new leaders. And they became an unconquerable racial power even under the cruel dominance of Japan. Through the era of oppression, the church was only the exit of people’s deep wrath. As Appenzeller contributed to the translation of the Bible, the speed of mission could be accelerated. And the fast growth of the church enabled the modernization of Korean society to proceed very quickly.
After all, Appenzeller was a throughout Methodist. His life was very regular and diligent, and his observation of everything was so accurate. He did not compromise with anything unfaithful. After his conversion, he never changed his mind and never had serious doubts. His soul and body were filled with work of mission. Wesley’s spiritual motivation was to realize salvation by Christ who washes our sins away. And this was the same for Appenzeller. As he was a Methodist pastor, he tried to follow Wesley’s theology and activities. Like Wesley, Appenzeller was also a man of conviction. He also tried to follow Wesley’s holy life and Wesley’s concern for the society. In the spiritual tradition of the church, many people ignored their society. They went to the desert, they avoided people, and it would be easy to maintain their spirituality. Actually, in a complicated world, it was hard to keep mysterious spirituality. On the contrary, people of modern times who worked for society were condemned. Because, working for society, they lost even basic faith and spirituality. But, Wesley showed very well how to balance his life between inner spirituality and social activism. And Appenzeller followed this model. His heart was filled with learning from Wesley and strong desire for ministry. His superman-like activities in Korea cannot be expressed with only physical word. He was inspired by the Holy Spirit, so he could do so many things even in such a short time. As he was the man of the Holy Spirit, he sacrificed his life to save other people. So he showed the love what the Bible taught us. “Greater love has no one than this, that he lay down his life for his friends” (John 15:13). When he taught and preached people, his soul was burning with love for Korean people. And this love was given to him by Jesus ahead and then he gave back it to the Koreans again. Through his life and work, we can recognize that how he was faithful to basic faith of salvation by Jesus and how fully his spirituality was filled with the Holy Spirit.
To be surprised, Methodist missionary and Presbyterian missionary came to Korea on the same day, and they landed from a same ship. And they helped and leaned on each other. After all, Methodist Church and Presbyterian Church became the main denominations of Korea.
Horace Grant Underwood (He had Korean name Won, Doo-Woo which is in the Korean style) was born in London on July 19, 1859 as a fourth son of six children. But when he was only 5 years old, his mother died (Jun 55). Nevertheless, John Underwood, his father was a very devout man. Thus he influenced on his children’s faith a lot. When Horace G. Underwood was 12 years, his family emigrated to the U.S.A. and then they settled down in New Durham, New Jersey. Underwood’s father wanted his son to be a missionary. Of course, Underwood also wanted to be a missionary and told his father that he would be a missionary.
In fact, Underwood was not rich, thus when he entered New York University, he walked to school about 8 miles during week days. In 1881, his father died, and Underwood entered New Brunswick Seminary. Even while he studied in the seminary, he slept only 5 hours and spent other 19 hours for the study and religious work (Kim, In-Soo 95-96). At that time, the country Underwood wanted to go for the mission was India. Thus he prepared to be a missionary to India. As he wanted medical service to Indian, He studied Indian Language and medicine (Jun 55).
In October, 1883, Underwood met Appenzeller at the “American Inter-Seminary Alliance.” And there, he strengthened his vocation as a missionary. When he was in the seminary, Albert Altmann who was a missionary in Japan came to the seminary and had a speech. Altmann appealed students to be missionaries to Korea where 13 million souls were dying. But Underwood did not care much, because he was preparing to go to India. In November 1884, he was ordained from the classis of New Brunswick. And while applying to be missionary to India, he came to know that no one was applying to Korea (Kim, In-Soo). Strangely he heard a voice in his mind “Why you do not go to Korea?” Although he heard of Korea, he never expected to be a missionary to Korea. But he followed the voice. After all, he was commissioned to be the first Presbyterian missionary on July 28 1884. At that time, he was not prepared to be a missionary to Korea. Thus he reached Japan first to learn Korean language. Surprisingly, he met Lee, Soo-Jung who interpreted Mark into Korean. Although Underwood was surprised that Korean Christian already existed, he learned Korean by Lee, Soo-Jung and also became exited about Korean mission (Jun 55-56).
Finally, he left Japan March 31, 1885 and landed Korea on April 5 with Appenzeller. As Underwood was with Lee, Soo-Jung, he already had Korean Mark. Thus it became a good device for his mission (Shin 21). As Mark was short than other Gospels and translated in Korean, missionaries usually distributed Mark to people. Therefore, the first learning about Christianity was mostly Mark.
In the beginning, Underwood worked in Kwang-Hye-Won which was the first modern hospital in Korea. At that time, Horace Newton Allen, a medical missionary was in charge of Kwang-Hye-Won. Later he became a diplomat. As Allen was comprised with political relationship, he had uncomfortable feeling with Underwood. Underwood was patient person who waits for the result after preaching for a long time (Kang, Wi-Jo 38). Allen came back to the U.S.A. in 1905 when Korea lost diplomatic right by Japanese empire. But Underwood still worked in Korea. However, even Allen had no choice but to return to the U.S.A because of the order of government (Kang, Wi-Jo 45)
Meanwhile, after one year in Korea, Appenzeller’s daughter and a Japanese staff who was working in the embassy needed to be baptized. Thus, on Easter of April 25, 1885 the first baptism was performed by Appenzeller and Underwood. On July 18, 1886 Noh, Choon-Kyung who was the Korean teacher of medical missionaries was baptized by Underwood and Appenzeller assisted. And he was the first baptized Korean (Chung, 33).
From the beginning of the mission in Korea, Underwood thought much of orphans. Thus, he gathered orphans and naturally it became an orphanage. In February, 1886, he got permission from the government about establishment of the orphanage and also a house was supplied. At that time, Koreans did not trust Western people. And lots of bad rumor about Western people were spread such as “The reason why Western people raise Korean kids is to eat them.” In spite of such misunderstanding, Underwood saw a vision in the orphanage, hence he educated orphans. In doing so, missionaries in Korea accepted Nevius policy of self-support. So the orphanage was changed into an industrial school, and students earned money by themselves. Later, this school became Kyung-Sin middle and high school in 1905 (Kim, In-Soo, 102-103). He also established a Presbyterian church. On September 12, 1887 Underwood started a church with 14 people in his room which was located in Chung-Dong, Seoul. In two weeks of establishment, Su, Sang-Ryun and Su, Kyung-Cho were elected as elders. This church was Sae-Moon-An church which was the first Presbyterian Church in Korea (The Committee of Theological Books, 33).
Surely, Appenzeller and Underwood were not the very first missionary who came to Korea. In the 19st century many Western missionaries came to China and Japan. Therefore, some Koreans heard of Christianity, and some missionaries visited Korea. But Appenzeller and Underwood are the first missionaries in the genuine meaning, because they devoted their life to the mission of Korea for the first time.
In 1887, Underwood had a trip to Northern area of Korea, and at that time, Su-Sang-Ryun and Su, Kyung-Cho were in Sol-Nae, Hwang-Hae-Do in Northern area of Korea. They participated in partial Bible translation in China with Western Missionaries before and established the first church with their own hands. They also voluntarily evangelized village people and educated them with the Bible. 50 houses of 58 houses were evangelized when Underwood arrived at Sol-Nae (The Committee of Theological Books 33). They requested Underwood to baptize them. But Underwood was cautious, because government requested missionaries not to do religious activities and mission. But they wanted to be baptized, thus they crossed the border. Therefore, they were baptized in China (Lee, Yong-Nam). Likewise, while mission was banned in Korea, early mission was performed secretively. As Underwood was interested in Northern area, he visited Northern Area several times. Even when he got married Lillias S. Horton, a medical missionary in April, 1889, they had honey moon tour to Northern area as a mission trip (Chung 38). Mrs. Underwood treated patients and Underwood took care of church leaders. In Eu-Joo, Underwood baptized 32 Christians in Ap-Rok river which was the border between Korea and China (Sin 277). After all, Northern Area of Korea became the central place of church growth before Korean War.
Like Appenzeller devoted himself to the Bible translation, Underwood also thought much of translation of the Bible into Korea. Actually the bible translation was the most difficult and the most effective way of mission. Underwood was good at Korean language and he devoted all of his life to the translation of the Bible into Korean. At that time, Chinese character occupied the whole Korean literature. But Underwood tried to translate the Bible into pure Korean (Jun 59). Moreover, as Appenzller died on the way to the Bible translation committee, Underwood came to have stronger obligation of the Bible translation. After all, in 1911 the whole translation was done (Su, Korea and Underwood 84-85).
Furthermore, Underwood published a newspaper “Christian Newspaper” and this newspaper supplied Koreans with new knowledge and spiritual sources as well as evangelizing non-believers. Even the government bought lots of this newspaper. Underwood was also a herald of Korea hymnal. In 1893, he published a Korean hymnal which contained 150 songs. Moreover, He settled down YMCA to Korea (Jun 60). Under such an effort, Korean Presbyterian Church grew up rapidly. In June 1907, 3421 people became new Christians and Korean Presbyterian Church had 15079 baptized Christians, and 60000 Christians grew up in 610 self-supporting churches. In 1907, new 161 churches were built and the rate of growth was 72%. They had 344 schools and all of them were self-supporting. The sum of students was 7504 (Su, Korea and Underwood 46-47).
In 1910, Korea was occupied by Japanese empire totally. Korea lost the national right. Japanese eliminated Korean education and then ordered Koreans to speak Japanese only in the schools. Thus, Underwood had no choice but to learn Japanese, so he went to Japan in 1915. But he was too much tired physically, mentally, and then infected by epidemic disease. Thus he came to the U.S.A for the recruitment. But he became sicker and never returned to Korea. He died on October 12, 1916 (Jun 61). Before his dying he asked his wife “Do you think I can go to Korea so far?” (Lee, Yong-Nam)
He served in Korea for 31 years, and even after his death, his wife established Hyu-Sung general School and Bible Club (Jun 61). Surprisingly, Underwood’s family still remained in Korea and served through such a harsh time of Korea. 5 Underwood generations have been serving in Korea. Through his life, he showed extreme love to Korea, and the result was great. Such being the case, he becomes an ultimate model of missionary from lots of Korean missionaries and missionary candidates. Thus, his descendants of faith are spreading to all over the world.
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